Thinking about the effects of white supremacy?

White Supremacy and Lynching

1.) Why did Reconstruction fail? Who was president and why was he a failure in regards to Reconstruction? Should the Southern leadership have been punished? You can refer to the Disenfranchisement section of your lessons in week two. If you use outside sources, they cannot be from anything generic (like history.com type generic websites).

2.) It is surprising to see that so many black office holders existed in the South, just as Reconstruction was starting to fail. In what states did they hold office? But, then the situation changed and they were no longer in office. How were African Americans disenfranchised? What states had the worst voting rights laws? How did these states get away with doing this?

3.) Plessy v. Ferguson is one of the most famous Supreme Court cases in U.S. history. What happened in the case and what precedent did it set? Your chapters have an entire section on the legal system. Find your chapters under “lessons”. Be sure to incorporate that information in your answer (so expand on more than just the Plessy decision).

4.) The Buffalo Soldiers as a group had mixed feelings about participating in the Spanish American War. Who were the Buffalo Soldiers who fought in this war? What were the controversies about?

How to Write a Winning Volunteer Year Motivation Letter That Will Help You Get a Visa in 2022

What to put in a cover letter for a volunteer visa in 2022
Your cover letter for a volunteer position should be thorough, appropriate, and simple to read. Include the following in your volunteer cover letter:

names and addresses of you

Greeting

Introduction

Body

Conclusion

Sign-off

names and addresses of you

Your name, home address, and primary phone number should be listed at the start of your cover letter whether you are sending it through email or regular mail. With this, you introduce yourself to the reader and provide them with your contact details. Put your email address under your name if you’re mailing a physical letter.

 

Greeting

A brief salutation or greeting should be used at the start of your letter. If at all feasible, use the recipient’s name and be respectful and professional in your communication. If you are unsure of who will be reading your letter, use “Dear Mr./Ms. Last Name” or “Dear Sir/Madam” instead of the traditional salutation. If you are unsure of whom to address your letter to, be sure to look for a potential contact in the department you might be working in.

 

Introduction

Your recipient is introduced to you in the first complete paragraph of your letter. A succinct description of who you are and why you are interested in the job should be included. You might also mention how or where you learned about the opportunity in this sentence. This is a wonderful time to discuss any contacts or professional recommendations you may have for the company.

 

Body

The focus of your volunteer cover letter should be in this area. You should describe why you would be a good fit for the role in this paragraph. the following information in the letter’s body:

 

List your degrees, majors, and the institutions you attended under education. It’s crucial that you reveal your highest level of education because many organizations have educational requirements for volunteers. You might include any leadership roles you held or extracurricular activities you took part in during your time in school here.

Focus on highlighting any professional experience that is pertinent to the role while describing your experience. Include your title and the name of your employer or supervisor if you have worked for a firm or donated your time to another group. How has your prior experience equipped you to serve as a volunteer? Please briefly explain.

Skills: In your final paragraph, you should list any unique abilities that are pertinent to the role. This covers fundamental abilities like cooperation, integrity, and time management. Include any technical expertise that is pertinent to the duties you will be performing. For instance, if you want to volunteer as an administrative assistant, you would mention both your computer expertise and interpersonal communication abilities.

You might also list any credentials or professional accomplishments that attest to your abilities in the body of your letter.

 

Conclusion

Your cover letter should end with a word of gratitude that expresses your appreciation to the reader for reading and taking the time to think about it. You should reiterate your interest in the job and give a general summary of your schedule of availability. Finish by promising a follow-up email and expressing your eagerness to hear from the company soon.

 

Sign-off

If you are sending an email, enter your entire name followed by your personal contact information after your conclusion, followed by a professional sign-off such “Sincerely” or “With kind regards.” Type your name, print the letter, then sign your name by hand beneath your closing if you’re sending a physical letter.

 

Learn more about writing a cover letter here.

 

Writing advice for a cover letter for a volunteer

Here are some more hints on how to draft an expert cover letter for a volunteer position:

 

Make research. Do your research on the company before applying. Find out who you should write to, what possibilities are available, and the criteria for volunteers before you write. You can be more explicit in the body of your cover letter if you are aware of this information beforehand.

Set objectives. Consider your motivations for volunteering as you write your letter. For instance, perhaps you want to advance your career, develop new skills, or find a fulfilling way to give back to your neighborhood. Your receiver will be able to tell if the position is a suitable fit for you if you include these aims in your letter.

Keep it brief. Every week, your receiver might get dozens of volunteer applications. They might simply take a few minutes to read through each letter that comes across their desk in the interest of expediency. Try to keep your cover letter to one page, with short, straightforward paragraphs, to make their task easier.

Startup in collage! Right or Wrong Pros & Cons Complete Explanation How to do your own Startup

Startup in collage! Right or Wrong Pros & Cons Complete Explanation How to do your own Startup

 

While attending college, you can engage in a variety of activities, many of which will appear on your CV and have an impact on your future job. Many millennials aspire to launch a business after graduating from college or later in their careers. However, there is actually nothing that prevents you from launching a business while you are still in school. Of course, there are benefits and drawbacks to launching a business while still in college.

In the last 50 years, some of the most prosperous businesspeople were in their teens or early 20s. Many people, like Mark Zuckerberg of Facebook and Bill Gates of Microsoft, launched their first firms while still in college. Many young people were motivated by the success of Microsoft, Apple, Facebook, and other companies to pursue entrepreneurship, often by dropping out of school.

 

However, I would advise against dropping out. There are hundreds, perhaps thousands, of college dropouts whose businesses failed to succeed. However, starting a business while you are still in college could be a terrific idea if you have a great idea, want to gain new skills, and want to expand your professional opportunities. Thus, before taking a

 

 

 

Benefits of Launching a Business While in College

 

 

You’ll have time to start planning.

 

 

If you wait until after you graduate from college to begin making plans for a new business, even though this is unquestionably the course you want to take, you will already be a little behind schedule. The amount of work involved in the planning phase of launching a new company should not be understated.

 

You must think about writing a solid business plan, consider the start-up costs, the anticipated turnover and profit margins, and the time it would take to return the start-up costs. You must conduct market research to determine who your target clients are and how to attract them. If all of this work is completed, you can start working right away.

 

You Can Use Resources from College

 

 

You shouldn’t undervalue the amount of access to resources you have at your college. Students who want to start their own businesses have access to free counselors, printing and IT facilities, and a variety of awards and financial aid programs.

 

 

For entrepreneurs, universities offer a wealth of counseling, mentoring, educational, and financial tools. Finding a professor or graduate student who is willing to give advice on your business plan, for example, shouldn’t be difficult.

 

You’ll discover that several institutions have running initiatives to aid new enterprises, and in certain circumstances, even spaces are available. There are so many expenses, such as the $970 cost of trademark registration, that any savings should be appreciated.

 

Numerous prestigious colleges offer resources and cash for company incubation. There is also a Graduate Entrepreneur Visa (Tier 1) program in the UK. Therefore, starting a business while studying is very possible and has a lot of support networks. Of course, getting into the correct university is essential.

How To Learn English Online Part 4 Through Skype! With an Indian Teacher Online!

Skype English lessons

Skype English courses are a really engaging approach to learn the language. You’ll be astounded to learn how technology enables you to take private English lessons from a tutor as if he were in your living room.
The benefits of Skype English classes
Simply put, Skype is an excellent tool for learning English with native English speakers wherever you are. The most recent version of Skype, an Internet connection, and a headset are all you need.
Engaging: The English courses we provide over Skype are quite interactive. Due to the fact that you are online, you have access to a wealth of materials, including articles, activities, and the teacher can write in new words or expressions for you.

For all levels: As the teacher and you speak, some terminology will appear on your screen. It’s incredibly helpful, especially for people with less advanced English.

Even less expensive: Since computer-to-computer connection is completely free, Live-English.net can provide you the finest deal!

Flexible: You can arrange a Skype English class at any time of the week for 45 or 30 minutes (also during the weekend).

How can I study English using Skype?

It’s fairly easy. You have immediate access to the Member Area after you register. You schedule a lesson with a Live-English instructor. On the day and time you specify, the instructor will call you on Skype. Now the lecture may begin.

 

Your needs are the focus of the courses, and the instructor adjusts to meet your goals and level. Since you’re using Skype, your teacher can send you instant messages as you converse. As a result, you may keep track of your errors and new terminology without constantly being interrupted. If your teacher wishes to share certain resources with you, he can also share his screen with you.

Prior to the class, material is typically supplied through email and can be shared.

Whatever course you decide on, learning English using Skype enables you to concentrate on speaking abilities, practice your English around topics that interest you, and feel more at ease speaking the language.

 

What is required for me to learn English using Skype?

Obviously, you must first download the free Skype app to your computer, tablet, or smartphone in order to begin. It simply takes a short while.

For the most recent version of Skype, visit Skype.com.

The call quality is excellent while using a typical Internet connection. Modern tablets and laptops typically have a decent microphone. You can also buy a headset if you’d like. Although it’s not required, we suggest using a webcam.

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IT Systems Used by Manulife Financial Cooperation

IT Systems Used by Manulife Financial Cooperation

Manulife Financial Inc. is a multinational financial and insurance services provider based in Canada. Like other companies across the globe, it uses IT systems to communicate documents and reports, store operational data and revise historical information. This paper explores the IT systems utilized by Manulife Financial Inc., such as hardware and software.

Manulife Financial uses multiple software such as SunGard iWorks, Manulife Mobile, Manulife Bank Mobile, Manulife zoom, V3locity Insurance Administration, and Manulife Budgeting tool software. The Manulife Mobile software is used to set up, upgrade and troubleshoot their mobile devices, such as Blackberry, iPad, and iPhone, among others. The Manulife Budgeting tool is used to create, troubleshoot, and maintain user accounts on various servers like BES (Blackberry Enterprise Server) and Mobile Iron MDM (Mobile Device Management) servers. SunGard iWorks and V3locity Insurance Administration are used for insurance enterprise resource planning (Apps Run the World, 2021).

On the other hand, the commonly used hardware components include computers and printers. The hardware supports planning, coordination, and execution of hardware and software upgrades, resolving domain, active directory, and network share issues, training and mentoring new team members, configuring and troubleshooting any printer issues (Manulife Financial, n.d). Generally, the hardware ensures effective and efficient execution of the firm’s software, thus increasing its productivity and business bottom line.

 

 

 

 

References

Manulife Financial.  (n.d.). Technology Support Analyst. Manulife Financial. https://manulife.talentify.io/job/technology-support-analyst-boston-massachusetts-manulife-jobreq0436448

Apps Run the World.  (2021, August 20). Manulife Software Purchases and Digital Transformation Initiatives. Apps Run the World. https://www.appsruntheworld.com/customers-database/customers/view/manulife-canada

 

Information Technology Education

Information Technology Education

The evolution of information technology has brought numerous benefits across the globe. Apart from upgrading efficiency, it has transformed the world into a single community and made connections quite easy. Like other sectors, the education sector also enjoys the deep resource-well of information technology. Today, the utilization of information technology in educational matters has turned to be more than an option but a necessity. For effective learning, the stakeholders in the education sector have integrated the use of technology in daily learning processes. Despite these advantages, others believe that the rise of information technology in education has also brought with it some disadvantages, which usually go unnoticed. This paper explores some of the reasons for and against the use of information technology in education.

Reasons for and against the use of information technology in education

            The greatest advantage of integrating information technology in learning is that it enhances access to learning materials. The internet as technology is full of many learning materials that learners can access to help supplement whatever has been provided. For example, there are eBooks on the internet websites that they can access to expand or improve their knowledge base. Second, it provides room for continuous learning. In the current world, one does not have to be in the classroom to learn. The use of information technology has enabled everyone to carry on with the learning process, irrespective of their location. For instance, professors and teachers can send assignments or homework, respectively, to their students, and the students can finish and submit them without physically going into the classroom and so learning must not have to stop. Lastly, the use of technology in learning also encourages sharing of knowledge. With online discussion forums, learners can share knowledge, involve themselves in intellectual debates or discussions, and generally learn from each other.[1]

Contrarily, the use of information technology in educational matters also has some disadvantages. First, it makes learning become more expensive. Curren­­­­­tly, some learners, especially those in higher learning institutions, are advised to have a laptop being the generation of paper is being replaced by digital learning. This has not only made them spend extra money to purchase the devices but also purchase software for their gadgets and even maintaining them. This act is considerably expensive. Second, it has led to the use of misguiding information. Websites and other e-materials mainly focus on getting a good ranking that offering the information they should provide. This has resulted in much misleading information published online to earn more visits irrespective of its accuracy.[2]

In conclusion, I tend to be of the opinion that the integration of information technology in education is good. It helps provides a platform for learners to share knowledge globally, offers plenty of learning resources, and also provides a chance for continuous learning, regardless of one’s location. Moreover, it accelerates the learning process, and offer fun opportunities while practicing what they learn. Those who use it enjoys a natural advantage in a real-world learning setting compared to others who do not.

[1] Hamidi F, Jafari M.

[2] Ozdamil F.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Reference List

Hamidi F, Jafari M. Information technology in education. 2011 [Cited 2021 October 8]; 3(2011): 369-373. Available from the Journal of Procedia Computer Science: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1877050910004370

Ozdamil F. Attitudes and opinions of special education candidate teachers regarding digital technology. 2017 [Cited 2021 October 8]; 9(4): 191-200. Available from the Journal of World Journal on Educational Technology: Current Issues: https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ1161616.pdf

The usage of Platelet-Rich-Plasma for Chronic non-healing wounds

The usage of Platelet-Rich-Plasma for Chronic non-healing wounds

Platelets- Rich Plasma has been used as a medical intervention for treating severe wounds or wounds that seem to take longer times to heal. Platelets Rich Plasma is a mixture of platelets and plasma that is obtained from the whole blood then the white and red blood cells are removed. This concentrate comes in four categories which vary from; leukocyte reduced, leukocyte rich, pure platelets fibrin, and leukocyte platelet-rich fibrin. The ongoing application of platelet-rich plasma in treating wounds is a result of the research-based efficacy of particular growth factors in the concentrate (Maisel-Campbel et al., 2019). The platelet-rich plasma is made by removing blood from the patient, undertaking two stages of centrifugation to remove the red blood cells. Transforming growth factor-beta and platelet-derived growth factors are some of the growth factors common in the platelets plasma that makes it used in the treatment of wounds. Epidermal growth factors and connective tissue growth factors are also commonly found growth factors in platelet-rich plasma that make it effective in tissue injury repair.

Bodies often sustain various forms of injuries that break the skin or even body tissues such as muscle tissues and tendons in any part of the body. Such injuries may affect various parts of the body and depend on the composition of the tissue injured may take varying times to heal. Some parts of the body tend to take relatively long periods to heal while other parts heal in comparatively shorter parts. The time that a wound takes to heal is determined by various factors such as the severity of the wound where less severe wounds may take a shorter time to heal as a result of the less tissue damage involved. Servers’ wounds on the other hand may take a long time to heal since in such wounds the skin or tissues damaged or to be repaired are big (Scott et Al., 2019). Also, other factors such as the immunity levels in a patient may be a significant factor in determining the healing of wounds in the patients. Research-based findings indicate that patients with higher immunity levels take relatively shorter times to held compared to the patients with weaker immunity. Just like in other diseases and infections, the medical interventions are taken to treat wounds also significantly determines the success and speed of healing where there are more effective means of creating wounds that appear more impactful than other means.

Patients in developing countries often experience chronic non-healing wounds which is a result of the inability to access the necessary growth factors. In such cases of chronic non-healing wounds, wound debridement, regular dressings and other traditional therapies for wounds seem to be ineffective since they do not provide the required growth factors. Various research trials conducted on the efficacy of platelet-rich plasma in treating chronic non-healing wounds prove that this mechanism is adequately effective though with chances of more developments in the area (Everts et al., 2019). The main challenge in chronic healing wounds is the lack of the growth factors that are needed for the repair of injured tissues in such wounds. Science-based research findings indicate that platelet-rich plasma is effective in healing wounds and injuries both in soft and hard tissues. This method of therapy is also effective not only in chronic none healing wounds but also in the healing of acute non-healing wounds. This healing effect of autologous platelet-rich plasma is enabled by the chemokines, fibrin, cytokines, and other growth factors present in the concentrate that is always derived from the blood of the patient.

Abnormalities of the growth factors are the main common causes of non-healing wounds which makes it difficult for the injured tissues to recover normally. Surgical debridement, regular wound dressing, and skin grafting are the most common conventional methods of treating wounds all of which are ineffective in treating chronic non-healing wounds. Such conventional means turn out to be ineffective when used as therapy for chronic non-healing wounds since they don’t provide any solution to the need for growth factors which is the main need for such cases. Platelets and wound Macrophages are vital in the process of wound healing as platelets are rich in the necessary growth factors. The high leukocytes levels in platelet-rich plasma are also significant in the healing process of wounds as such components act as anti-inflammatory factors. Platelet-rich plasma contains platelet-derived angiogenesis factor which helps in capillary formation from the existing microvasculature in the wounds. Application of Platelet-rich plasma is also effective in treating chronic non-healing wounds since it acts as a barrier preventing bacterial infection of the wound which may prolong the healing process.

Diabetes is one of the common causes of non-healing wounds in patients as diabetic patients often experience such tissue damages. This effect of diabetes is called diabetic peripheral telepathy which is a form of nerve damage that often affects the feet of the patient. Diabetic Peripheral neuropathy is preferred as distal symmetric peripheral neuropathy which causes wounds in the feet of the patient and later the hands. This common form of neuropathy starts as a single pain and numbness in the feet or the arms then developed into serious wounds that become difficult to heal. Various healthcare systems have used varying methods in providing treatment for diabetic peripheral neuropathy with varying degrees of success or failure in most cases. The most common therapeutic method for this neuropathy is controlling blood sugar which is commonly used in the early stages of infection. Wound debridement, regular wound dressing, and skin grafting are also commonly used methods in creating neuropathy in advanced stages when the condition has resulted in wounds in the legs or hands. Other forms of treatment such as debridement, skin grafting, or regular wound dressing often fail to heal wounds resulting as a result of diabetic peripheral neuropathy. Platelet-rich plasma is therefore useful in treating such wounds since it provides the necessary growth factors for tissue repair and healing of the wound.

Mononeuropathy or focal neuropathy is also a form of neuropathy that is often experienced by patients with diabetes and as such can be treated using various ways. This form of neuropathy is dangerous since it reduces the healing speed for wounds but instead prolongs the healing of even small injuries. Diabetic patients with this kind of neuropathy find themselves developing serious wounds from even tiny cuts or injuries to the skin or tissues. In such patients, even a small cut that would take a week to heal in other patients that are not diabetic enlarge and worsen instead of healing and as such take a longer period to heal. Platelet-rich plasma can therefore be used to effectively speed up the healing of wounds resulting from focal neuropathy which is common in diabetic patients. The lack of growth hormones in such wounds resulting from neuropathy may worsen and lead to amputation of such affected body parts such as toes, legs, or even the hands. The platelet-rich plasma thus provides the necessary growth hormones that help in the repair of tissues and hence healing of the wounds instead of worsening of the injuries.

PRP at Cedar Medical Center

Though not as widely practiced as other traditional therapy methods for chronic non-healing wounds platelet-rich plasma is used in various institutions. Cedar Medical center is one of the healthcare facilities that have incorporated the use of platelet-rich plasma in treating chronic non-healing wounds. The medical facility has established adequate facilities and machinery for the extraction and the double centrifugation of the blood to make the platelet-rich plasma. The healthcare professionals in the facility then administer the concentrate to patients in the right quantities through injection where patients are treated using this formula to show speedy recovery (Emer 2019). This ensures that the facility can effectively use this treatment method and that no cases of shortage of platelet-rich plasma hinder healthcare provision. The facility has experienced significant success in the treatment of chronic non-healing wounds since the introduction of the use of platelet-rich plasma. The facility uses the method to treat cases arising from sports-related injuries such as small rotator calf tear, tennis elbow, and feet. However, the cost of treatment using this method seems to be more expensive since medical insurance does not cover the cost of preparing and administering platelet-rich plasma, and the patients are required to pay for the services. This method of therapy is also effective not only in chronic none healing wounds but also in the healing of acute non-healing wounds. This healing effect of autologous platelet-rich plasma is enabled by the chemokines, fibrin, cytokines, and other growth factors present in the concentrate that is always derived from the blood of the patient.

 

PRP at California Pacific Orthopedics

California Pacific Orthopedics is a healthcare provider made up of medical specialists that handle conditions relating to the bones and bone tissues. The organization has incorporated the use of platelet-rich proteins in the treatment of chronic non-healing wounds and other injuries that may require the introduction of growth factors for faster recovery. The organization largely uses platelet-rich plasma for the treatment of tendon muscle injuries with a success rate of between 70 and 80 % (Kon et al., 2020). The treatment takes roughly four to six weeks where special precautions are taken when treating patients with bleeding disorders, low blood count, or those with a history of allergy to anesthetic agents. The treatment also required special precautionary measured to be taken for pregnant or breastfeeding women as well as for patients in blood thinning and anti-inflammatory medications. The organization reveals that the process takes roughly ten minutes and involves drawing up to 10 milliliters of blood from the patient for the preparation of the platelet-rich plasma. A local anesthesia is then applied around the injured part and the platelet rich plasma injected into the affected area for induction of growth factors. This method of therapy is also effective not only in chronic none healing wounds but also in the healing of acute non-healing wounds. This healing effect of autologous platelet-rich plasma is enabled by the chemokines, fibrin, cytokines, and other growth factors present in the concentrate that is always derived from the blood of the patient.

 

 

References

 

Scott, A., LaPrade, R. F., Harmon, K. G., Filardo, G., Kon, E., Della Villa, S., … & Engebretsen, L. (2019). Platelet-rich plasma for patellar tendinopathy: a randomized controlled trial of leukocyte-rich PRP or leukocyte-poor PRP versus saline. The American journal of sports medicine47(7), 1654-1661.

Emer, J. (2019). Platelet-rich plasma (PRP): current applications in dermatology. Skin therapy letter24(5), 1-6.

Maisel-Campbell, A. L., Ismail, A., Reynolds, K. A., Poon, E., Serrano, L., Grushchak, S., … & Alam, M. (2020). A systematic review of the safety and effectiveness of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) for skin aging. Archives of dermatological research312(5), 301-315.

Everts, P. A., Malanga, G. A., Paul, R. V., Rothenberg, J. B., Stephens, N., & Mautner, K. R. (2019). Regenerative Therapy.

Kon, E., Di Matteo, B., Delgado, D., Cole, B. J., Dorotei, A., Dragoo, J. L., … & Sánchez, M. (2020). Platelet-rich plasma for the treatment of knee osteoarthritis: an expert opinion and proposal for a novel classification and coding system. Expert Opinion on Biological Therapy20(12), 1447-1460.

Problem Solving as a Data Scientist

Critically think about your role as a data scientist and what you have learned in this program as you answer the following prompts: A current business problem that your organization faces that you can work towards solving with the skillsets and experiences you’ve gained in this program? If you are not currently employed, what is a different real-world problem that you might solve? What technologies / languages need to be “brought to bear” on the problem?

One of the problems that I can see my organization facing in the future is product testing, metric measuring, and forecasting. I work in a project office in army aviation. At some point we test new features and new air vehicle models. I have already discussed working with the test engineering team to build dashboard to display test metrics and help with predictive models. This program has given me the foundation needed to assist with those topics. It has also allowed me to be more deeply invested in my job and use my skills in more areas than one. I am also currently a data manager so I put together a lot of reports and plans for how we handle all forms of data in our office. This program has already helped me to run reports more efficiently and provide better insight into issues with data.

I work as a ski lift operator at Breckenridge Ski Resort, under the umbrella of Vail Resorts, in Breckenridge, Colorado.

An interesting business analysis that I could work with using tools in this program is something I have actually spoken to the senior manager of mountain operations about. Our mountain has an app that gives updates on all facets of the resort. It provides live updates on the wait time of each lift on the mountain, volume of people inside the restaurants scattered across the mountains, snow conditions, and various other points of interest. The way in which wait time is calculated and predicted is very interesting. Using data from the number of passes scanned at base lifts, people actively tracking their ride on our app, and purchases at restaurants, predictive analysis can be used to provide information on the number of people out and how long it will take to get food or to ride any of the 30 lifts across the mountain. Once the information is collected, we turn to the dashboard interface on the app and can portray the data in any number of ways.

As the mountain expands and the data collection gets smoother, the predictive methods are continuing to be better and better and provide the data in a clearer manner. It was cool to discuss this, as it is not at all part of my day to day work, but something I have interest in and maybe something to work towards within the company in the future.

I work for a medical logistics company, and one area that falls under my responsibility is maintaining our handset and scanner inventory. One of the critical problems I encountered was holding a stable stock of devices for drivers in the field. There is an extremely high turnover of devices due to being destroyed, lost or stolen, or added work. Recently, I wrote some queries in SQL. These included ten years of data, geographical results of where tablets were utilized nationwide, and the growth of the business. Our company does not use Power BI, so I had to create a dashboard in Excel. I used Pivot Tables, slicers, and pretty colors of the data to show total units, historical purchases, predictability of new geographical areas, and trends on when assets were to be purchased. I made my presentation to management. Everyone was impressed with what the data showed. Management ignored my recommendations. We still have stock issues, and all my forecasting is proving accurate. Real-world reality – “You can lead a horse to water…..”

Many emergency departments throughout the country and around the world are experiencing long wait times. At our hospital, we are no exception. In order to resolve the problem, we need to identify the barriers. One of the challenges is having the right amount of staff and resources when the department experiences a surge of patients. If we could better predict hourly, daily, and monthly volumes based on historical data, the department may be able to balance staffing and resources.

To help solve this problem, I would need to utilize all the tools available to me, including R, SQL, CCL, PowerBI, Qlik, and real-time data feeds, to create a predictive model that could predict accurate volumes.

I would need to utilize historical weather data, including temperature and conditions such as sun, rain, or snow. I would also need to use moon phase data with daily percentages (to prove or disprove the full moon theory.) I would add calendar events around holidays, school schedules, report cards, end-of grades, government subsidy checks, and other community-type special events that draw large crowds. Most importantly, I need to add historical clinical data that includes dates, times, volumes, and reason for the visit to calculate recommended staffing patterns. I would also add historical epidemic data such as flu and COVID cases to help identify seasonal trends.

I would create a predictive analytic dashboard with historical data and a future forecast that is updated every 30-60 minutes. The combined data would help identify patterns and volumes for a specific time. This would allow the ED management team to see the daily forecast and predictions for the next seven and 30 days. The visualizations below are examples of some of the data and dashboards we currently have around ED volumes.

Predictive Analytics

Predictive analytics requires structured data in general, so with this in mind. How does graph representation and graph analytics help with the unstructured data before or along with building predictive modeling? what are the trending Graph Database tools? What are the processing challenges with Graph databases compared to structured databases?

Graph representation and graph analytics is a huge help for that first step of understanding unstructured data. Unstructured data is information that isn’t arranged yet by patterns, trends, or any data model. Graph representations allows us to get a visual and draw initial conclusions and further predictions about the data we have in front of us.

Oracle, Neo4j, and Mark Logic are a couple trending graph database tools. We explored Neo4j a little bit in our previous course and it was neat to be able to see relationships and groups in the data we have.

In a graph database, the relationship among parts of our data are stored in the individual record level. Structured databases on the other hand uses these predefined structures to hold it all together. No standardized language is one of the biggest struggles. The other main issue is that sometimes graphs aren’t the best way to show and interpret things.

Graph databases allow a flexible schema or unstructured data to have linkages to different parts of the data. With easy expression of entities and relationships between data, graph databases make it easier for programmers, users and machines to understand the data and find insights. This deeper level of understanding is vital for successful machine learning initiatives, where context-based machine learning is becoming important for feature engineering, machine-based reasoning and inferencing.

What are the trending Graph Database tools?

The top ten graph database tools are listed below from this website (Links to an external site.).

Neo4j, ArangoDB, Amazon Neptune, Dgraph, DataStax,OrientDB, FlockDB, Cassandra and Titan.

What are the processing challenges with Graph databases compared to structured databases?

Specialty graph data engineers are needed to process and model the data
Maintaining the consistency and relationships of the data
Writing graph data queries
Every query you write is not re-usable. If you have 10 questions you want answered from the data you have to write ten different queries

Graph analytics is actually built to analyze both structured and unstructured data.
As the name suggests, graph analytics is a graph model which represents entities and relationships. We see unstructured data in social media, mobile, the Internet, and the huge volume that needs to be processed in a fraction of seconds. This makes it difficult to make the data structured (like relational data) and define the proper semantic layer.

Using a graph database here like NoSQL makes it more accessible, and dynamic with a low cost for new data to be integrated into the existing system. It has the capability to process and retrieve a high volume of data from multiple sources. Due to high flexibility, it becomes more accessible to interlink data, derives meaningful analysis, and make better decisions. (Link (Links to an external site.))

Some of the trending Graph database tools are : (Link (Links to an external site.))

Neo4j: This we have covered in detail in the previous courses.
AWS Neptune
Dgraph
Cassandra
Graph QL

Since we are dealing with highly interconnected data of both structured and unstructured with any volume we face the below problems (Link (Links to an external site.))
1. To Maintain consistency of data
2. Modelling the interconnected data
3. Writing the graph query
From my previous program I knew about knowledge graphs and deep learning but I was unaware of graph analytics, which is similar to knowledge graphs. Knowledge graphs are three dimensional graphs with for example text graphs words are along two axes and the third axis provides the distance in meaning between the words. These graphs along with convolutional neural network models were used to develop original images and text based on data seeds (Chollet, 2018). The concept of utilizing graph analytics with predictive modeling is a similar methodology. The graph analytics can provide degree centrality, shortest or longest path, community Ids and pagerank results which are similar to the knowledge graph distance between word meanings and clustering algorithms.

The only Graph Database tool I have used is Neo4j. I have heard of Oracle Spatial and Graph. The following article provides ranking of current graph databases https://www.predictiveanalyticstoday.com/top-graph-databases/ (Links to an external site.). Their top ones are ArangoDB, Neo4j, OrientDB, and AllegroGraph (Predictive Analytics Today, 2022).

With my limited experience, the issues with graph databases are that they are resource intensive and consume a significant amount of time to run complex queries. For one of my queries, I needed 64 gigabytes of RAM and a week to run the code. However, their syntax for complicated queries is easier than using PL/SQL with cursor code. PL/SQL code that is tens of lines is just a couple of lines in Neo4j, but the tradeoff is the time to run the complex query.