Literature Review

Literature Review

Importance

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Barta et al.’s study explores major decision-making aspects in individuals and larger populations. The study is important, as it seeks to define self-control and give it meaning in line with its application in decision making. The researchers explore the approach by understanding how values shape how various people see the world and how such values influence decision-making. Also worth noting is the significance of comparing and examining the neural correlates of subjective value and their application in decision making (Bartra et al. 413). The study also serves to apply scientific methods to understand what has previously been considered a social or psychological question.

Objective

The study aims to identify the neural signs related to the subjective value of choice alternatives and their applications in decision making. The study seeks to provide a coordinate-based, quantitative examination of the fMRI research concerned with the subjective values in decision-making and their neural correlations (Bartra et al. 414). Also, the study seeks to identify the neural signs that aid in the representation and computation of subjective values in the entire decision-making process. In the entire process, the study seeks to understand the instances where the blood oxygen level-dependent signals correlate negatively or positively with the subjective values. Further, the study is interested in determining the trends of the neural responses and the regions that encode subjective values during decision making and in experiencing the outcome.

Design, Setting, and Participants

The quantitative meta-analysis was conducted in line with the fMRI research report on the relevance of meta analyses in decision making (Bartra et al. 415). The research involved selecting 206 fMRI-based experiments published in various journals to help compare and contrast the reactions and responses in line with the subjective values. A total of 4857 participants were involved in the 206 studies. The study sought to understand the behaviour rod various people under various environments and events that may trigger crucial decision making.

Main Outcomes

From the study, there are various positive and negative effects of natural correlates on subjective values and decision-making. In some cases, the greater impact for more aversive or less rewarding outcomes of decision making, the effect of blood oxygen level-dependent was noted and marked as positive (Bartra et al. 417). Also, in some cases, the impact of blood oxygen level dependent was greater in less abusive or more rewarding decisions and noted as negative. Out of the results obtained, 77 of them contained negative impacts while 200 contained positive impacts, with 71 out of the 77 negative cases reporting mixed outcomes.

Results

From the study outcomes, differences in the structures of the foci and the cortex were observed in various outcomes. For instance, the structure of the foci and the appearance of the cortex for the cases with positive outcomes were observed to be different from those with negative outcomes. (Bartra et al .417) Comparing the density of characteristics resulting from the impacts of blood oxygen level-dependent, the positive cases were seen to crowd specific areas different from the areas crowded by the negative cases.

Conclusion

From the study, it can be derived that various neural correlates have a consistent relationship with the subjective values of decision-making. Therefore, the decision-making process is not just a product of assessment of values acquired from the environment but also a significant product of neural processes. This can be proved by the research outcomes in the study where various neural correlates indicated a consistent association with various decisions.

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Works Cited

Bartra, Oscar, Joseph. McGuire, and Joseph, Kable. “The Valuation System: A Coordinate-Based Meta-Analysis of BOLD fMRI Experiments Examining Neural Correlates Of Subjective Value.” Neuroimage, vol. 76, 2013, pp. 412-427.

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