Information Technology Education

Information Technology Education

The evolution of information technology has brought numerous benefits across the globe. Apart from upgrading efficiency, it has transformed the world into a single community and made connections quite easy. Like other sectors, the education sector also enjoys the deep resource-well of information technology. Today, the utilization of information technology in educational matters has turned to be more than an option but a necessity. For effective learning, the stakeholders in the education sector have integrated the use of technology in daily learning processes. Despite these advantages, others believe that the rise of information technology in education has also brought with it some disadvantages, which usually go unnoticed. This paper explores some of the reasons for and against the use of information technology in education.

Reasons for and against the use of information technology in education

            The greatest advantage of integrating information technology in learning is that it enhances access to learning materials. The internet as technology is full of many learning materials that learners can access to help supplement whatever has been provided. For example, there are eBooks on the internet websites that they can access to expand or improve their knowledge base. Second, it provides room for continuous learning. In the current world, one does not have to be in the classroom to learn. The use of information technology has enabled everyone to carry on with the learning process, irrespective of their location. For instance, professors and teachers can send assignments or homework, respectively, to their students, and the students can finish and submit them without physically going into the classroom and so learning must not have to stop. Lastly, the use of technology in learning also encourages sharing of knowledge. With online discussion forums, learners can share knowledge, involve themselves in intellectual debates or discussions, and generally learn from each other.[1]

Contrarily, the use of information technology in educational matters also has some disadvantages. First, it makes learning become more expensive. Curren­­­­­tly, some learners, especially those in higher learning institutions, are advised to have a laptop being the generation of paper is being replaced by digital learning. This has not only made them spend extra money to purchase the devices but also purchase software for their gadgets and even maintaining them. This act is considerably expensive. Second, it has led to the use of misguiding information. Websites and other e-materials mainly focus on getting a good ranking that offering the information they should provide. This has resulted in much misleading information published online to earn more visits irrespective of its accuracy.[2]

In conclusion, I tend to be of the opinion that the integration of information technology in education is good. It helps provides a platform for learners to share knowledge globally, offers plenty of learning resources, and also provides a chance for continuous learning, regardless of one’s location. Moreover, it accelerates the learning process, and offer fun opportunities while practicing what they learn. Those who use it enjoys a natural advantage in a real-world learning setting compared to others who do not.

[1] Hamidi F, Jafari M.

[2] Ozdamil F.















Reference List

Hamidi F, Jafari M. Information technology in education. 2011 [Cited 2021 October 8]; 3(2011): 369-373. Available from the Journal of Procedia Computer Science:

Ozdamil F. Attitudes and opinions of special education candidate teachers regarding digital technology. 2017 [Cited 2021 October 8]; 9(4): 191-200. Available from the Journal of World Journal on Educational Technology: Current Issues:

The usage of Platelet-Rich-Plasma for Chronic non-healing wounds

The usage of Platelet-Rich-Plasma for Chronic non-healing wounds

Platelets- Rich Plasma has been used as a medical intervention for treating severe wounds or wounds that seem to take longer times to heal. Platelets Rich Plasma is a mixture of platelets and plasma that is obtained from the whole blood then the white and red blood cells are removed. This concentrate comes in four categories which vary from; leukocyte reduced, leukocyte rich, pure platelets fibrin, and leukocyte platelet-rich fibrin. The ongoing application of platelet-rich plasma in treating wounds is a result of the research-based efficacy of particular growth factors in the concentrate (Maisel-Campbel et al., 2019). The platelet-rich plasma is made by removing blood from the patient, undertaking two stages of centrifugation to remove the red blood cells. Transforming growth factor-beta and platelet-derived growth factors are some of the growth factors common in the platelets plasma that makes it used in the treatment of wounds. Epidermal growth factors and connective tissue growth factors are also commonly found growth factors in platelet-rich plasma that make it effective in tissue injury repair.

Bodies often sustain various forms of injuries that break the skin or even body tissues such as muscle tissues and tendons in any part of the body. Such injuries may affect various parts of the body and depend on the composition of the tissue injured may take varying times to heal. Some parts of the body tend to take relatively long periods to heal while other parts heal in comparatively shorter parts. The time that a wound takes to heal is determined by various factors such as the severity of the wound where less severe wounds may take a shorter time to heal as a result of the less tissue damage involved. Servers’ wounds on the other hand may take a long time to heal since in such wounds the skin or tissues damaged or to be repaired are big (Scott et Al., 2019). Also, other factors such as the immunity levels in a patient may be a significant factor in determining the healing of wounds in the patients. Research-based findings indicate that patients with higher immunity levels take relatively shorter times to held compared to the patients with weaker immunity. Just like in other diseases and infections, the medical interventions are taken to treat wounds also significantly determines the success and speed of healing where there are more effective means of creating wounds that appear more impactful than other means.

Patients in developing countries often experience chronic non-healing wounds which is a result of the inability to access the necessary growth factors. In such cases of chronic non-healing wounds, wound debridement, regular dressings and other traditional therapies for wounds seem to be ineffective since they do not provide the required growth factors. Various research trials conducted on the efficacy of platelet-rich plasma in treating chronic non-healing wounds prove that this mechanism is adequately effective though with chances of more developments in the area (Everts et al., 2019). The main challenge in chronic healing wounds is the lack of the growth factors that are needed for the repair of injured tissues in such wounds. Science-based research findings indicate that platelet-rich plasma is effective in healing wounds and injuries both in soft and hard tissues. This method of therapy is also effective not only in chronic none healing wounds but also in the healing of acute non-healing wounds. This healing effect of autologous platelet-rich plasma is enabled by the chemokines, fibrin, cytokines, and other growth factors present in the concentrate that is always derived from the blood of the patient.

Abnormalities of the growth factors are the main common causes of non-healing wounds which makes it difficult for the injured tissues to recover normally. Surgical debridement, regular wound dressing, and skin grafting are the most common conventional methods of treating wounds all of which are ineffective in treating chronic non-healing wounds. Such conventional means turn out to be ineffective when used as therapy for chronic non-healing wounds since they don’t provide any solution to the need for growth factors which is the main need for such cases. Platelets and wound Macrophages are vital in the process of wound healing as platelets are rich in the necessary growth factors. The high leukocytes levels in platelet-rich plasma are also significant in the healing process of wounds as such components act as anti-inflammatory factors. Platelet-rich plasma contains platelet-derived angiogenesis factor which helps in capillary formation from the existing microvasculature in the wounds. Application of Platelet-rich plasma is also effective in treating chronic non-healing wounds since it acts as a barrier preventing bacterial infection of the wound which may prolong the healing process.

Diabetes is one of the common causes of non-healing wounds in patients as diabetic patients often experience such tissue damages. This effect of diabetes is called diabetic peripheral telepathy which is a form of nerve damage that often affects the feet of the patient. Diabetic Peripheral neuropathy is preferred as distal symmetric peripheral neuropathy which causes wounds in the feet of the patient and later the hands. This common form of neuropathy starts as a single pain and numbness in the feet or the arms then developed into serious wounds that become difficult to heal. Various healthcare systems have used varying methods in providing treatment for diabetic peripheral neuropathy with varying degrees of success or failure in most cases. The most common therapeutic method for this neuropathy is controlling blood sugar which is commonly used in the early stages of infection. Wound debridement, regular wound dressing, and skin grafting are also commonly used methods in creating neuropathy in advanced stages when the condition has resulted in wounds in the legs or hands. Other forms of treatment such as debridement, skin grafting, or regular wound dressing often fail to heal wounds resulting as a result of diabetic peripheral neuropathy. Platelet-rich plasma is therefore useful in treating such wounds since it provides the necessary growth factors for tissue repair and healing of the wound.

Mononeuropathy or focal neuropathy is also a form of neuropathy that is often experienced by patients with diabetes and as such can be treated using various ways. This form of neuropathy is dangerous since it reduces the healing speed for wounds but instead prolongs the healing of even small injuries. Diabetic patients with this kind of neuropathy find themselves developing serious wounds from even tiny cuts or injuries to the skin or tissues. In such patients, even a small cut that would take a week to heal in other patients that are not diabetic enlarge and worsen instead of healing and as such take a longer period to heal. Platelet-rich plasma can therefore be used to effectively speed up the healing of wounds resulting from focal neuropathy which is common in diabetic patients. The lack of growth hormones in such wounds resulting from neuropathy may worsen and lead to amputation of such affected body parts such as toes, legs, or even the hands. The platelet-rich plasma thus provides the necessary growth hormones that help in the repair of tissues and hence healing of the wounds instead of worsening of the injuries.

PRP at Cedar Medical Center

Though not as widely practiced as other traditional therapy methods for chronic non-healing wounds platelet-rich plasma is used in various institutions. Cedar Medical center is one of the healthcare facilities that have incorporated the use of platelet-rich plasma in treating chronic non-healing wounds. The medical facility has established adequate facilities and machinery for the extraction and the double centrifugation of the blood to make the platelet-rich plasma. The healthcare professionals in the facility then administer the concentrate to patients in the right quantities through injection where patients are treated using this formula to show speedy recovery (Emer 2019). This ensures that the facility can effectively use this treatment method and that no cases of shortage of platelet-rich plasma hinder healthcare provision. The facility has experienced significant success in the treatment of chronic non-healing wounds since the introduction of the use of platelet-rich plasma. The facility uses the method to treat cases arising from sports-related injuries such as small rotator calf tear, tennis elbow, and feet. However, the cost of treatment using this method seems to be more expensive since medical insurance does not cover the cost of preparing and administering platelet-rich plasma, and the patients are required to pay for the services. This method of therapy is also effective not only in chronic none healing wounds but also in the healing of acute non-healing wounds. This healing effect of autologous platelet-rich plasma is enabled by the chemokines, fibrin, cytokines, and other growth factors present in the concentrate that is always derived from the blood of the patient.


PRP at California Pacific Orthopedics

California Pacific Orthopedics is a healthcare provider made up of medical specialists that handle conditions relating to the bones and bone tissues. The organization has incorporated the use of platelet-rich proteins in the treatment of chronic non-healing wounds and other injuries that may require the introduction of growth factors for faster recovery. The organization largely uses platelet-rich plasma for the treatment of tendon muscle injuries with a success rate of between 70 and 80 % (Kon et al., 2020). The treatment takes roughly four to six weeks where special precautions are taken when treating patients with bleeding disorders, low blood count, or those with a history of allergy to anesthetic agents. The treatment also required special precautionary measured to be taken for pregnant or breastfeeding women as well as for patients in blood thinning and anti-inflammatory medications. The organization reveals that the process takes roughly ten minutes and involves drawing up to 10 milliliters of blood from the patient for the preparation of the platelet-rich plasma. A local anesthesia is then applied around the injured part and the platelet rich plasma injected into the affected area for induction of growth factors. This method of therapy is also effective not only in chronic none healing wounds but also in the healing of acute non-healing wounds. This healing effect of autologous platelet-rich plasma is enabled by the chemokines, fibrin, cytokines, and other growth factors present in the concentrate that is always derived from the blood of the patient.





Scott, A., LaPrade, R. F., Harmon, K. G., Filardo, G., Kon, E., Della Villa, S., … & Engebretsen, L. (2019). Platelet-rich plasma for patellar tendinopathy: a randomized controlled trial of leukocyte-rich PRP or leukocyte-poor PRP versus saline. The American journal of sports medicine47(7), 1654-1661.

Emer, J. (2019). Platelet-rich plasma (PRP): current applications in dermatology. Skin therapy letter24(5), 1-6.

Maisel-Campbell, A. L., Ismail, A., Reynolds, K. A., Poon, E., Serrano, L., Grushchak, S., … & Alam, M. (2020). A systematic review of the safety and effectiveness of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) for skin aging. Archives of dermatological research312(5), 301-315.

Everts, P. A., Malanga, G. A., Paul, R. V., Rothenberg, J. B., Stephens, N., & Mautner, K. R. (2019). Regenerative Therapy.

Kon, E., Di Matteo, B., Delgado, D., Cole, B. J., Dorotei, A., Dragoo, J. L., … & Sánchez, M. (2020). Platelet-rich plasma for the treatment of knee osteoarthritis: an expert opinion and proposal for a novel classification and coding system. Expert Opinion on Biological Therapy20(12), 1447-1460.

In which of the following categories is UTP cable not rated?

In which of the following categories is UTP cable not rated?
Question options:
Category 2
Category 3
Category 5e
Category 8
On an Ethernet switched network, what address does one host computer use to communicate with another?
Question options:
IP Address
MAC Address
Street Address
HUB Address
How many wire pairs are used with half duplex?
Question options:
None of the Above
Which one of these devices uses VLANs to segment a network?
Question options:
All of the above
Which is not an advantage of network segmentation?
Question options:
Reduced Congestion
Improved Security
Containing Network Problems
Preventing Broadcast Storms

(Solved) Discussing Data Visualizations That Inspire?

Oftentimes if you’re stuck on how you might precisely create a visual to show something in a certain way it can be helpful to look at data visualizations that inspire you.

  • Find three or more visualizations that are unique and inspire you.
  • Describe the problem the visualization is solving and what you find it exceptional.
  • Identify a visualization that is complex. Include the visualization in your posting and the source as well.

(Solved) Learning the OSI Model and TCP/IP?

The OSI Model and TCP/IP

The Reference Model is a conceptual framework for understanding how computers communicate. The OSI model defines seven different layers of communication rules. Each layer of the OSI model has its own means of communication or protocol. The OSI model is used as a reference when explaining how data passed over the network moves through each layer. Each of the seven layers has specific responsibilities and logically interfaces to the layer above or below it. Each layer in the OSI model provides a different service needed for communication across an IP network and physical media. The top three layers often are called the “upper layers” since they deal primarily with application data. The lower layers deal primarily with getting packets to their destination. Many refer to these layers as infrastructure.


1. For this discussion, compare and contrast two layers of the Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) Reference Model, including the protocols that run on each layer.

2. What was the reason that IPv6 was introduced?  Why do you think many organizations are not upgrading their network solely to IPv6 and run that protocol instead of running IPv4?

3. What is the purpose of subnetting when using IPv4 addressing?  What role does subnet mask play in subnetting of IPv4?

Need help writing your nursing research report?

1. What is your research question? Be as specific as possible.
How do different intensity levels of exercise impact the levels/symptoms of anxiety in
undergraduate Kin students?
2. Who are your participants? How will you recruit them?
The participants of this study will focus on undergraduate kinesiology students. All students in
the program will be approached by a mass email to participate in the study as well as using
social media platforms to encourage participants. We would like around 100 students to
respond to participate – more or less is okay though!
3. What study design will you be using?
Non-experimental, Correlational design
4. Describe your method (i.e. what will participants have to do)?
Participants will complete two surveys containing closed-ended questions:
1. Questions based on their physical activity intensity and frequency (GODIN
questionnaire) – multiply intensity by certain numbers → high number = lots of exercise,
low number = little to no exercise
● How many days per week are you physically active?
● Typically, how long is the duration of your workouts?
● Describe the intensity of your physical activity?
2. Questions based on their level of anxiety and the symptoms they feel (using a
standardized test)
● Becoming easily annoyed or irritable?
● Worrying too much about different things?
● Trouble relaxing/restless – struggle to sit still
● Feeling nervous, on edge, anxious or afraid?
5. What is your independent variable?
Intensity of exercise
Time%20Exercise%20Questionnaire_070815.pdf Godin questionnaire for intensity and
frequency of exercise

a. How will you manipulate it to differ between groups?
● Control group (no exercise), light intensity exercise, and moderate-vigorous
intensity exercise.

6. What is your dependent variable?
You don’t have an independent and dependent variable in your project. It is just two
variables (physical activity and anxiety that you are comparing to each other) You
can’t determine the direction in a cross-sectional study. The variables could be bi-
Levels of anxiety

a. How will you measure it?
We would use a standardized rating scale which would give us a range of how
severe each group’s anxiety levels are (ex. mild, moderate, severe). To do this we
would calculate the average score of each respective group (ex. average score of
all participants in the control group, average score of all participants in light
intensity group etc.)

7. Are there any controls in your study? Any potential confounders that should be
The undergraduate students who don’t participate in any exercise. Age, gender, course
load, medical conditions
8. Are there any ethical concerns for your study?
Could be triggering for individuals since we are asking about anxiety.
● Age and gender can be noted on the survey for reference (not for evidence)
9. What is your hypothesis?
Individuals who participate in longer and heavier intensity exercises have lower
anxiety levels and reduced symptoms of anxiety

Need help writing a miRNA Project Scientific Research Paper?

miRNA Project Scientific Research Paper

We are continuing our authentic research experiment seeking to verify targets of miR-101 by analyzing the data from our qPCR runs.

You will demonstrate your understanding of the experiment by analyzing the data from the qPCR of your candidate gene and the appropriate controls.

All your writing for this report is individual. It must be in your own voice and your own ideas. Sources for information must be cited accurately using the CSE format. All drafts and final versions will be screened by Urkund for plagiarism, which is a serious academic offense. Unauthorized collaboration is a common problem in this class, so be original!

The Results

The Results is a statement of your data and statistical tests, observations and measurements, portrayed in tables and figures or graphs that allow the relationship between variables observed to be compared. It contains the visuals that display your data and a body of text that describe the data and trends (Knisley, 2017).

The Results section should begin with text that leads the reader through the data, pointing out trends and observations the writer feels are important, but not interpreting or drawing conclusions about the data, which belongs in the Discussion.

Insert the Tables after the paragraph where they are first mentioned for the convenience of your reader.

Tables are captioned above the table and describe where the data in the contents were gathered, any pertinent information about the treatment or experimental organisms not obvious from the column headings, and each replicate or criteria in rows. Tables present data in a way to make comparison of the numbers possible between different treatments or replicates, to show results of statistical tests or variance, or allow comparing lists of data. Knisely example:


The Discussion of a Scientific Research paper

Writing your first Discussion

Writing a coherent Discussion will probably be a challenge if you’ve never written one before, so follow the guidelines here in the Lab 8 post-lab, outlining what you need to include, then fill in your outline from your understanding.

  • Relate your findings to research papers you either used in your Introduction (you probably should re-read it to remind you of what you proposed to do and why) or new papers about the context of your experiment.
  • Why are your conclusions important? Write your ideas in rough form first, then go back and edit the details, add support from research papers on miRNA and gene expression or on your gene.
  • Word choice is especially important in your Introduction and Discussion, where it must be clear and concise with no flowery phrases. If you feel challenged when writing for science, please view the following helpful video: Scientific Writing in Biology: Word Choice
  • opens in new window

The Discussion

The Draft 2 guidelines provide details for your Draft 2, Title Results and Discussion, due 5 minutes before the beginning of the Lab 9 session, but here we will outline the basic requirements and purpose of a Discussion adapted from examples and Knisely’s Writing in Biology, 5th edition.


The discussion has the inverse of the organization of the Introduction. It begins with your specific hypothesis and your interpretation of your results, then relates those to the published literature or what is already known, and ends with the wider context; why your conclusions are important.

Knisely, 2017.

  • Interpret the results of tests or experiments and controls in the context of your experimental question. Assess the quality of your data before drawing conclusions. Does the data support your hypothesis?
  • Refer to the tables in your Results that support your statement by citing the graphic in the text.
  • State the source of the error briefly when your results make it difficult to draw conclusions without a lot of explanation, especially if you are unsure of the reason. Human error, variability between different experimenters or replicates, or too small a sample size can all lead to an inability to make a convincing conclusion. These are all part of authentic research and can be corrected by repeating experiments.
  • Careful of your language: Results don’t prove hypothesis, but can provide evidence that supports a hypothesis, or evidence that disagrees with a hypothesis. Be careful not to make strong conclusions since the scientific method only supports hypothesis until a large amount of evidence is gathered from multiple sources, the underlying mechanism is thoroughly investigated, or a newer study provides new information that disproves the existing theory.
  • Persuade your reader that your interpretation is correct by referring to the data in your Results, leading them through the conclusions they should draw at each step of your analysis. If your evidence is strong and consistent, you can build your Discussion as a convincing argument to support your conclusion.
  • Compare: Another way to convince your reader that your conclusions are correct is by comparing your findings to those of other researchers-do they agree with your conclusions? These can be papers with a similar hypothesis or who performed similar studies- not exactly the same, but comparable to some aspect of your experiment. Relating your study to others increases the credibility of your conclusions.
  • Context: Finally, describe the context of your major finding. Suggest the next step- what would you do next? What could be the implications of your result in your subject area? How important is your finding?
  • Tense: When referring to your Results or work from published studies, use the past tense when describing them. When you make statements about what is true or considered a scientific fact, use the present tense.

Examples from Knisely:

Past tense:

The initial velocity of the reaction was zero at temperatures between 60OC and 90OC (Figure 1).

Explanation: Past tense signifies that you are describing your own results.

Present tense:

At high temperatures, there is no enzymatic activity because the enzymes are denatured.

Explanation: Present tense signifies that these statements are generally valid and considered to be scientific fact.


From Huang’s 2017 paper: 2017-Huang-miR101_FZD4_FZD6_TGFBR1_16420-39.pdf


Introductory paragraph:

In this study, we discovered that the miR-101 level was reduced in the lungs of patients with IPF. miR-101 expression was regulated by the ETS transcription factor. Notably, miR101 reduced pulmonary fibrosis by inhibiting fibroblast proliferation and differentiation via the WNT5a/NFATc2 and TGF-/Smad2/3 pathways (Fig. 12).

Middle paragraph (relating project to the literature):

miR-101 was originally identified as a tumor suppressor, and its expression was reduced in many cancers due to genomic loss. miR-101 inhibited cell proliferation and invasion in cancer cells by targeting EZH2 (25) and inhibited autophagy and sensitized cancer cells to chemotherapeutic drug-induced cell death (26, 27). The effect of miR-101 on angiogenesis is contradictory, and both pro- and anti-angiogenic effects have been reported (28, 29). miR-101 enhanced LPS-induced pro-inflammatory cytokine production in macrophages via the activation of MAPK by targeting MAPK phosphatase-1 (30). Finally, miR-101 has been shown to inhibit liver and cardiac fibrosis (31, 32).

Final paragraph:

Emerging evidence suggests that suppressing up-regulated miRNAs or restoring the activities of the down-regulated miRNAs associated with disease could become a novel therapeutic strategy. Adeno-associated viruses have been used for the delivery of miRNAs in vivo to restore their activity; its therapeutic potential has been validated in a mouse model of lung carcinoma (35). Therapeutic delivery of miR-29 mimics by intravenous injections in the tail vein reversed pulmonary fibrosis in the bleomycin-induced mouse fibrosis model (14). In this study, adenovirus-mediated miR-101 lung delivery reduced the fibrotic changes in bleomycin-treated mouse lungs and also improved pulmonary function. Thus, miR-101 may be a potential therapeutic miRNA for the treatment of pulmonary fibrosis.

Questions to ask yourself:

  1. How does the discussion begin? Which writing strategy mentioned in our Discussion page did the author use? The others are equally good.
  2. Examine how concise the middle section, the relating your results to the work of others, reads. How should you explain the work of others? A single sentence in your own words can make the point of why you are mentioning another study. How does their result compare to your result? Does their study support your conclusion or does it contradict your study?
  3. Their final paragraph places their conclusion in context. How could your results be used? Make a suggestion for further studies or an application of your result in the disorder that you chose your candidate gene to affect.

Draft 2: Title, Results and Discussion- Individual

The authentic research experiment seeking to verify targets of miR-101 experiment is now complete. 

Draft 2 will consist of your second version of the title, and the Results and Discussion (with References cited) of your scientific paper.

It is due by the beginning of your Lab 9. Your Tables will be completed, marked and returned to you with feedback before your submit Draft 2.

,The New parts of Draft 2 will be to write the narrative text of your Results section that describe your data Tables for your reader, and the Discussion which analyzes the Results.

You will submit it to the Draft 2 assignment dropbox in Brightspace by 5 minutes before your Lab 9. All submissions are screened by plagiarism software. No print copy needs to be submitted.

Before you submit your final version at the end of term, you will need to edit your drafts carefully to incorporate the TA feedback.

For the whole paper, you will follow the guidelines in the Student Handbook for Writing in Biology (Knisely, 2017). Also see the instructions that follow and the rubric for how your paper will be assessed.

All your writing for this report is individual. It must be in your own voice, and your own ideas. Sources for information must be cited accurately using the CSE format. All drafts and final versions will be screened by Urkund for plagiarism, which is a serious academic offence. Unauthorized collaboration is a common problem in this class, so be original!


The title should:

  • Be a concise description of your project
  • include the name of your candidate gene, species and genus, method used to investigate your question, and now, your main result.
  • a clear statement of your result or conclusion, if you could make one, not as a question.
  • It should provide enough detail to allow someone interested in your topic to find your paper with a Google search.
  • Make any changes or improvement suggested by your TA from your Draft1 feedback.


The Results are not limited by page or word limits. Key components referred to in the rubric are here:

Report the results of the experiment. Do not interpret or make conclusions about the results in this section. This section should objectively present the data you produced in the experiment and summarize your findings. Organize your results and data in a logical order:

  1. Start with a written description before the tables included in your results (Knisely, 2017, p.59-80). When describing results, refer to the appropriate table where supporting data can be found. Insert tables into your results.
  2. For each trial in your lab section for your candidate gene, you must present ALL the Cq values for all 3 or 4 replicates that also used your candidate gene primers.
  3. Do the DNA contamination check calculation for each data set and report the results.
  4. If no contamination is present, present the ∆Cq and ∆∆Cq values. You should analyze the data of ALL the teams that investigated your candidate gene. Tables must be formatted correctly with proper table titles following Knisely, 2017, p.62-64. For any missing data, use a dash or asterisk so it doesn’t look like an omission.


The purpose of a discussion is to analyze relationships among observed facts and to present your interpretation of the data. In your Discussion:

  • Use at least two primary research articles (these may be the same as those used in your Introduction).
  • 5-2 pages long when double-spaced with one-inch margins
  • follow a logical order to develop your ideas

What should it include?

  1. Major Conclusions: Restate the hypothesis of the experiment and your prediction and make a succinct statement answering your experimental question (was your gene a target of miR-101?). Briefly describe the major conclusions of your experiment, by referring to specific results presented in graphs or tables. Your conclusion does not have to match your prediction.
  2. Discussion of Results
    Interpret your results and discuss their meaning and conclusions. Refer to the relevant tables in your results section to support your conclusions. Are your results what you expected to see? Why or why not? Was your scientific rationale adequate to answer your question? Interpret results from your controls. Draw attention to outliers or problems in the data or recognize data that does not fit your hypothesis.
  3. Relate Findings to Literature Discuss your results as they relate to previous research in the literature. Compare the role of miR-101 and the role of your candidate gene (use references here to connect your results to other publications). Use in-text citations and use at least two primary research articles (or more if necessary). Do not use direct quotes – instead, compare the results from the published research to your own findings and discuss any similarities or differences you observe.
    Propose what would be a logical next step to either confirm or disprove your results.
  4. Final Conclusion and Context Make a summary statement suitable for inclusion in an abstract. Can you draw any conclusions, and do you think your candidate gene is influenced by hsa-miR-101? What do your results mean (in the bigger picture)?

Optional (possible) discussion points to think about:

  • The criteria you used to select your candidate gene
  • The strength of the prediction (from miRDB) that your gene would be a target of miR-101


Results sections usually do not include any citations to other work. It is meant to present your work only, with no interpretation, just the results of the tests.

For your Discussion:

  • Include a reference list with your two primary research articles and any other sources you used.
  • Look at your feedback for the references in Draft 1 and fix any problems.
  • For how to format and cite your references, click on this CSE style guide link.


After you have written your text describing each table check for:

  • Concise, organized and logical presentation, appropriate word choice, proofread with no spelling/grammatical errors.
  • Name, B number and lab section in upper right-hand corner of first page (no cover page)
  • Text double-spaced except for table captions, 11 or 12-pt Times New Roman, 1 inch margins, page numbers.
  • Tables should be sequentially numbered, starting at 1. Tables not split over two pages. Table titles go above the table.

Rubric for Draft 2 – Title, Results, Discussion and References

RUBRIC (Same as in assignment dropbox):

Criteria Excellent Very good Good Adequate Inadequate
Title 5 points


Title conveys main point of experiment, and includes name of miRNA, candidate gene, species, method and result.

4 points


Title mostly conveys main point of experiment, but one essential part is missing.

3 points


Title mostly conveys main point of experiment, but two essential parts are missing.

2.5 points


Point of experiment is difficult to determine by the title, three or more essential parts are missing.

1 point


Point of experiment cannot be determined by the title.

Results 20 points


Begins with narrative text, presents tables required, highlights key trends to reader and reports test results without biological interpretation. Tables have appropriately detailed captions and can stand on their own.

17 points


Begins with narrative text, presents tables required, highlights key trends to reader and reports test results without biological interpretation. Small problems such as: interpreting Cq or delta Cq values before normalizing data, or brief table captions, or mistakes in data reporting or calculation.

14 points


Begins with narrative text, presents most tables required, and reports test results without biological interpretation. Larger problems such as missing data, very brief narrative text, trends not explicitly mentioned, tables have very brief legends, or conclusions about hypothesis are briefly made.

10 points


Three of the following: Minimal narrative text, tables minimal and mostly uninformative, trends not noted in text, tables lack captions, or makes conclusions about hypothesis.

5 points


Major problems that leave reader uninformed; narrative text is lacking entirely, tables contain unclear and/or irrelevant information. e.g., “Results” contain no text, raw data are in a table w/ poor legend.

Discussion 30 points


Presents most key components: supports or rejects hypothesis, formulates argument for conclusions referring back to biological rationale & by comparing with relevant findings in literature, evaluates experimental design, evaluates reliability of data, states implications of results, suggests next investigation steps, and ends paper with final conclusion.

25 points


Presents many key components and  has done a good job with the Discussion but -fails to clearly tie biological rationale from the Intro into the conclusions made OR has also included superfluous experimental problems OR another key component not well done

20 points


Presents some key components but needs some improvement

e.g., clearly states that hypothesis is rejected or supported and develops a good argument that refers to the results and biological rationale, but fails to logically and objectively evaluate the experimental design and data reliability OR cites literature without relating to their results.

15 points


Many key components are very weak or missing.

e.g., fails to explicitly reject or support hypothesis and so conclusions are vague and incompletely tied to rationale, literature is minimally cited, presents unranked list of problems instead of logical evaluation of design and data.

10 points


Most key components are missing or very weakly done.

e.g., illogical conclusions made based on data, no ties to biological rationale are made, no literature cited, little to no evaluation of experimental design/data.

References 5 points


Two primary research articles are cited within text in name, year format; references in final reference list are listed alphabetically and formatted using CSE guidelines.

4 points


Two primary research articles are cited within text in name, year format; references in final reference list are listed alphabetically and formatted using CSE guidelines, but there are 1-2 errors. e.g., citations are done well but there are a few minor formatting errors in the final reference list.

3 points


Two primary research articles are cited within text in name, year format; references in final reference list are listed alphabetically and formatted using CSE guidelines, for the most part, but there are consistent errors. OR a reference cited in the text does not appear in the final reference list OR a reference in the final list is not cited in the text.

2.5 points


One required citation is missing OR citations are minimal within the text OR final reference list is largely incomplete and/or is not formatted appropriately.

1 point


Information from outside source is presented but is consistently not cited; final reference list is missing.

Organization, wording, grammar 10 points


Excellent organization and sentence flow, appropriate word choice; clear and concise explanations; no unnecessary repetition or irrelevant information, few to no grammatical errors.

9 points


Organization was good with few to no problems, mostly clear and concise, wording awkward in a few places; minor unnecessary repetition, few grammatical errors.

7.5 points


Organization somewhat problematic but can still follow thought progression e.g. explanation of methods in the results section; wording awkward at times; little unnecessary repetition; some grammatical errors or appears not to have been proofread.

5 points


Problematic organization of some section resulting in loss of clarity; awkward wording at times; some unnecessary repetition; some grammatical errors.

2.5 points


All poorly organized, interrupted flow of ideas leading to lack of clarity, can not follow thought progression, many grammatical errors.

Format 5 points


Double-spaced text except table and figure legends, 11 or 12-pt Times New Roman or Gill Sans MT,, 1 inch margins, Name, B number and lab section in upper right-hand corner of first page, page numbers. Saved as .pdf

4 points


Name, B number and lab section in upper right-hand corner of first page, missing one other requirement of formatting.

3 points


Name, B number and lab section in upper right-hand corner of first page, missing two other requirements of formatting.

2.5 points


Name, B number and lab section in upper right-hand corner of first page, missing three or more other requirements of formatting.

1 point


Little attempt to format correctly.

Overall Score Level 5

63.25 or more

Level 4

50.75 or more

Level 3

37.75 or more

Level 2

20.75 or more

Level 1

0 or more






Need help writing your nursing discussion post assignment?

Your task is to CLEARLY AND IN YOUR OWN WORDS (do NOT use quoted
material or wording from other sources or the text) explain a psychological term from
Chapters 1-4 in the TEXTBOOK. Then, use a real-world example to illustrate this term.
Due Date: MARCH 5th, NOON
*Please note that this assignment was originally due on February 28th.
Note: The language of this assignment should be in a “discussion” format – like you are
having a conversation with a friend. Avoid jargon and complex language.
ADDITIONAL INFORMATION: There is no set length for this assignment. However,
to explain the term, provide an example to illustrate that concept, you should expect to
have a MINIMUM of two paragraphs, about a page, single-spaced
Single-spaced is fine for this assignment
Use of personal pronouns is okay for this assignment
Terms/concepts can be anything. For example, you could explain the function of a brain
area–then use an example of how this area was impacted in a grandparent after a stroke.
OR, you could use an example of an optical illusion you experienced–any term is fair
game IF you can explain it in your own terms AND give a real-world example.
Step 1: Select a term from Chapters 1, 2, 3, or 4 of your textbook. Provide a definition of

the term, in your own words (i.e., no quotes!), that is simple enough that a non-
psychology major (e.g., a fellow student who is not in the class) could understand it.

Step 2. Provide a real-world example that reflects a real-world situation where this term is
reflected in behaviour/mental processes. This example can be from your own life, OR, if
you are uncomfortable sharing such, the life/experiences of a public person. Be
thoughtful not to describe situations that are overly personal/confidential. This is not
meant to be invasive!
Step 3. Provide a reference for the textbook that you would include in a References
section of a paper. Please see the APA Manual for detailed instructions.
Step 4. Proof read your assignment. Clarity, in terms of grammar, spelling, punctuation,
and appropriate language will be a significant proportion of your grade. You must
demonstrate that you can communicate this term and example in an effective manner.
Step 5. Self-assess your response on the rubric in the Discussion Assignment Grading
Guide below
Step 6. Upload your assignment to the assignment drop box. Please note that your
assignment must be saved as .doc or .rtf. Documents that cannot be opened will not be
graded and will be assigned a grade of zero (0).

List the procedure codes for: a) Recall exam b) Two bite-wing radiographs c) Fluoride treatment d) Uncomplicated tooth removal e) Root canal – one canal f) Commercial lab charges

List the procedure codes for:
a) Recall exam
b) Two bite-wing radiographs
c) Fluoride treatment
d) Uncomplicated tooth removal
e) Root canal – one canal
f) Commercial lab charges
2. Name the teeth: example 43- Mandibular right canine or cuspid.
3. Name the tooth number: example permanent mandibular left first molar-36
a) permanent mandibular right second  molar
b) permanent maxillary right third molar
c) permanent maxillary left first premolar
d) permanent mandibular left central incisor